From Peace Station Encyclopedia
Jump to navigationJump to search

Spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is generated by the motion of its center of mass about an external point.

Spin angular momentum is particularly important for systems at atomic length scales or smaller, such as individual atoms, protons, or electrons. The effects of quantum mechanics are important when describing such particles. Quantum mechanical spin possesses several unusual features, which will be described in the remainder of this article.

Spin of elementary and composite particles

One of the most remarkable discoveries associated with quantum physics is the fact that elementary particles can possess non-zero spin. Elementary particles are particles that cannot be divided into any smaller units, such as the photon, the electron, and the various quarks. Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the spin possessed by these particles cannot be explained by postulating that they are made up of even smaller particles rotating about a common center of mass; as far as we can tell, these elementary particles are true point particles. The spin that they carry is a truly intrinsic physical property.

According to quantum mechanics, the angular momentum of any system is quantized. For instance, electrons (which are elementary particles) are called "spin-1/2" particles because their intrinsic spin angular momentum has s = 1/2.

The spin carried by each elementary particle has a fixed s value that depends only by the type of particle, and cannot be altered in any known way (although it is possible to change the direction in which the spin "points".) Every electron in existence possesses s = 1/2. Other elementary spin-1/2 particles include neutrinos and quarks. On the other hand, photons are spin-1 particles, whereas the graviton is a spin-2 particle.

The spin of composite particles, such as protons, neutrons, atomic nuclei, and atoms, is made up of the spins of the constituent particles, plus the orbital angular momentum of their motions around one another. The angular momentum quantization condition applies to both elementary and composite particles. Composite particles are often referred to as having a definite spin, just like elementary particles; for example, the proton is a spin-1/2 particle. This is understood to refer to the spin of the lowest-energy internal state of the composite particle (i.e., a given spin and orbital configuration of the constituents). It is not always easy to deduce the spin of a composite particle from first principles; for example, even though we know that the proton is a spin-1/2 particle, the question of how this spin is distributed among the three internal quarks and the surrounding gluons is an active area of research.

Spin direction

In classical mechanics, the angular momentum of a particle possesses not only a magnitude (how fast the body is rotating), but also a direction (the axis of rotation of the particle). Quantum mechanical spin also contains information about direction, but in a more subtle form. Quantum mechanics states that the component of angular momentum measured along any direction (say along the z-axis) can only take on certain values. For example, there are only two possible values for a spin-1/2 particle: sz = +1/2 and sz = -1/2. These correspond to quantum states in which the spin is pointing in the +z or -z directions respectively, and are often referred to as "spin up" and "spin down".

For a given quantum state, it is possible to describe a spin vector S whose components are the expectation values of the spin components along each axis, i.e., S = [sx, sy, sz]. This vector describes the "direction" in which the spin is pointing, corresponding to the classical concept of the axis of rotation. It turns out that the spin vector is not very useful in actual quantum mechanical calculations, because it cannot be measured directly — sx, sy and sz cannot possess simultaneous definite values, because of a quantum uncertainty relation between them. As a qualitative concept, however, the spin vector is often handy because it is easy to picture classically.

For instance, quantum mechanical spin can exhibit phenomena analogous to classical gyroscopic effects. For example, one can exert a kind of "torque" on an electron by putting it in a magnetic field (the field acts upon the electron's intrinsic magnetic dipole moment - see the following section). The result is that the spin vector undergoes precession, just like a classical gyroscope.

Mathematically, quantum mechanical spin is not described by a vector as in classical angular momentum. It is described using a family of objects known as spinors. There are subtle differences between the behavior of spinors and vectors under coordinate rotations. For example, rotating a spin-1/2 particle by 360 degrees does not bring it back to the same quantum state, but to the state with the opposite quantum phase; this is detectable, in principle, with interference experiments. To return the particle to its exact original state, one needs a 720 degree rotation!

Spin and magnetic moment

Particles with spin can possess a magnetic dipole moment, just like a rotating electrically charged body in classical electrodynamics. These magnetic moments can be experimentally observed in several ways, e.g. by the deflection of particles by inhomogeneous magnetic fields, or by measuring the magnetic fields generated by the particles themselves.

The electron, despite being an elementary particle, possesses a nonzero magnetic moment. One of the triumphs of the theory of quantum electrodynamics is its accurate prediction of the electron g-factor, which has been experimentally determined to have the value 2.002319... The value of 2 arises from a fundamental equation connecting the electron's spin with its electromagnetic properties, and the correction of 0.002319... arises from the electron's interaction with the surrounding electromagnetic field.

Composite particles also possess magnetic moments associated with their spin. In particular, the neutron possesses a non-zero magnetic moment despite being electrically neutral. This fact was an early indication that the neutron is not an elementary particle. In fact, it is made up of quarks, which are charged particles. The magnetic moment of the neutron comes from the moments of the individual quarks and their orbital motions.

The neutrinos are both elementary and electrically neutral, and theory indicates that they have zero magnetic moment. The measurement of neutrino magnetic moments is an active area of research. The latest experimental results have put the neutrino magnetic moment at less than 1.3 × 10^-10 times the electron's magnetic moment.

In ordinary materials, the magnetic dipole moments of individual atoms produce magnetic fields that cancel one another, because each dipole points in a random direction. In ferromagnetic materials, however, the dipole moments are all lined up with one another, producing a macroscopic, non-zero magnetic field. These are the ordinary "magnets" with which we are all familiar.